Revisiting the Racial Achievement Gap: Evidence from Recent US Panel Data (2017)
This paper examines the racial gap in academic achievement in elementary and high school using recently released large-scale nationally representative panel data sets from the US. I find achievement disparities among white, black, Asian, and Hispanic students at kindergarten entry in mathematics, reading, science and working memory. Controlling for differences in household and school characteristics across race explains about 70% of the raw minority-white gaps, but moderate unexplained gaps still remain. Black-white and Hispanic-white math and reading achievement gaps widen as children progress through school, but achievement gaps in science and working memory remain constant. Significant racial achievement gaps exist in all key subjects in grade 9 and remain constant throughout high school. Bond and Lang (2013) argue that test scores are generally ordinal and show that certain results in the racial achievement gap literature depend on the cardinalization of the test score scale. To check the sensitivity of my primary results I use the methodology developed by Penney (2017) that provide estimates robust to the ordinality critique.
Draft will be posted soon.